Performing Kegel Exercises During and After Pregnancy

How can these exercises help you?

Should you do Kegel exercises before and/or after pregnancy? The short answer is yes. Kegels target the pelvic floor—muscles you might not even know you have let alone know how to go about finding or strengthening them. But exercising your pelvic floor muscles is key to keeping these muscles, which support the bladder, rectum, and uterus, functioning optimally.

Kegel exercises are particularly relevant for women who are pregnant and/or have given birth as pregnancy and childbirth (as well as aging, excess weight, and other factors) can weaken these muscles—and cause a host of pelvic health problems. Luckily, Kegels are a relatively simple and effective exercise that most women can do to dramatically improve their pelvic floor muscle tone.

Kegels can be done just about anywhere and take only a few minutes per day to perform. Read on for a primer on why you may want to incorporate Kegels into your daily routine and how to do them properly.

Doctor teaching pregnant woman about Kegel exercises
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Pelvic Floor Muscles

The pelvic floor is a set of muscles in the pelvic region running from the tailbone to the pubic bone like a hammock. The primary muscle of the pelvic floor is the pubococcygeus (PC), which runs along and around the openings of the urethra, vagina, and rectum. This layer of muscles supports the organs in the pelvis, which include the uterus, bladder, and bowel. These muscles span the base of the pelvis to keep your organs in place and strengthen the bladder and rectal sphincters, which give us conscious control over the bladder and rectum.

In other words, strong pelvic floor muscles help you control the release of urine, feces, and flatulence, which means they keep you from having accidents, developing hemorrhoids, or having to go to the bathroom too often. Kegel exercises can help you keep these pelvic floor muscles strong.

Exercising your pelvic floor muscles also helps to tone the muscles of the vagina, which can enhance sexual health and enjoyment. In fact, research has shown a strong link between weakened pelvic floor muscles and sexual dysfunction.

How Pregnancy Impacts Pelvic Floor Muscles

Pregnancy and childbirth can put a lot of strain on the pelvic floor muscles, particularly due to the weight of the pregnant belly, changes in posture and body alignment, and all the stretching and compacting that happens in a women's pelvic and abdominal regions while growing a baby. The birth itself can also cause damage to these muscles, resulting in common pelvic floor disorders.

Among other factors—like trauma, abdominal surgery (such as a Cesarian section), repeated straining from constipation, and being very overweight—vaginal childbirth, particularly subsequent births, can significantly weaken the muscles of the pelvic floor. Research overwhelmingly demonstrates a relationship between pregnancy and diminished pelvic floor strength.

It's a good idea to consult your doctor about beginning these exercises if you have any specific pelvic health concerns, particularly if you are pregnant or have recently given birth.

Kegels can be used to treat or prevent pelvic health symptoms and, for the most part, are safe to start at any time.

Kegel Basics

Invented by American gynecologist Arnold Kegel in the 1940s as a nonsurgical treatment for incontinence, the exercise has become a first-line treatment for urinary stress incontinence (USI), vaginal, bladder, or uterine prolapse (sagging), and other pelvic health concerns.

Additionally, Kegels can be used to prevent these issues as well, which is why many healthy women, especially in mid-life and later are encouraged by their doctors and other health professionals to perform them regularly.

Prevention exercise becomes particularly valuable for pregnant and postnatal women seeking to improve or maintain the condition of their pelvic floor muscles. Kegels can also help bolster sexual sensation, which means adding them into your daily life can be a boost in the bedroom as well.

What Are Kegels?

Kegels are an effective, relatively easy exercise that improves pelvic floor muscle strength, which can help prevent and treat incontinence as well as other pelvic health issues.

Even if you don’t have clinically diagnosed pelvic floor dysfunction, Kegel exercises can help reverse, improve, or prevent very common pregnancy and post-childbirth pelvic health concerns.

Benefits of Kegel exercises
Verywell  / Jessica Olah

Health Conditions Kegels Can Help Treat

Performing Kegels regularly can have a host of benefits. Many symptoms of a weak pelvic floor overlap with the side effects of being (or having been) pregnant. For instance, if you have trouble tightening and relaxing your pelvic floor muscles, you may then have trouble making it to the bathroom in time or experience a high frequency of urination. This is often diagnosed as pelvic floor dysfunction or pelvic floor weakness, conditions Kegels were designed to treat.

Strengthening your pelvic floor with Kegel exercises can help a variety of pelvic health symptoms that commonly arise during or after pregnancy, including:

  • Leakage of urine (urinary stress incontinence)
  • Leakage of stool
  • Constipation or pain with bowel movements
  • Painful urination
  • Frequent need to urinate
  • Pain with intercourse
  • Feeling like you aren’t “done” during a bowel movement
  • Lower back pain

Your doctor may want you to wait until you've recovered from childbirth before starting treatment to see if any of the symptoms have changed. These symptoms may be signs of other conditions that are unrelated to your pregnancy. So, don't wait to discuss any concerns you have with your doctor in order to confirm the root cause of the symptoms—and get started on treatment, which may include a referral to a pelvic health physical therapist.

Performing Kegels

Kegels are essentially repetitive squeezes of the pelvic floor muscles. You don't need any special equipment to perform these exercises and they can be done anywhere. All you do is locate the right muscles, tighten, hold, release, rest, and repeat.

Sometimes this is easier said than done. It can be a bit tricky to get the hang of where the muscles are and what exactly to do. However, rest assured, once you do, the actual exercises are straightforward—even easy. The key is to isolate the correct muscles to focus on and learn how to perform them correctly.

Identifying the Muscles

In order to find the correct muscles, there are some things you can try:

  • The next time you urinate, stop the urine mid-stream with your muscles and hold. These are the muscles you will use during Kegels. If needed, squeeze and hold a few times to tap into how to isolate these muscles. However, don't make a habit of this or do your Kegels while you urinate, as doing so increases the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs).
  • Insert a clean finger into your vagina. Squeeze your muscles as if you were holding in urine. If you feel a tightening around your finger, you’ve got the right muscles.
  • Use weighted vaginal cones (which are shaped like a rounder, smaller computer mouse) that you insert like a tampon and squeeze. These can be helpful tools to show you which muscles to use and keep you on track while doing your Kegels.

If you’re having difficulty isolating your pelvic floor muscles, ask your doctor or gynecologist for guidance. They may refer you to a physical therapist who specializes in pelvic health who can help teach you proper Kegel technique.

Some doctors also use biofeedback with Kegel exercises in order to monitor pelvic floor activity.

How to Do Kegels

Proper technique is vital but you can do the exercise in a variety of ways and settings. You can do Kegels laying down, sitting, standing, or kneeling on all fours. Actually, you can do this exercise pretty much any time, anywhere. Ideally, you should do all four positions each day for maximum strength.

To perform the exercise, starting with an empty bladder, pull up the pelvic muscles and squeeze for a count of five or six, then relax for a count of five to six seconds. Eventually, you want to be able to work up to a set of 10 to 15 repetitions each time. Aim to do the exercises at least three times a day.

One way to think about doing Kegels is to squeeze and lift from the vaginal opening up toward the cervix. Some describe this tightening motion as like riding an elevator up as far as it will go. Then, as you let the muscles relax, take the elevator all the way back down.


There are many different ways Kegels can be performed. Consult your doctor for specifics on the best forms of the exercise for your particular body and pelvic health concerns. Some variations include doing fast, tight holds or a series of longer, progressively stronger squeezes. Other options include doing customized holds which target specific concerns, such as leaking when exercising, coughing, laughing, or yelling. Variations may incorporate saying different letters or words or simulating coughs while performing Kegels.

Mistakes to Avoid

It's important to note that the relaxing of the pelvic floor muscles between Kegels is just as crucial to improvement as the squeezing motions. So, it's vital not to skimp on this part.

Think of it this way. When doing Kegels you are getting those muscles strong enough to, for instance, clamp down on command to prevent accidents. However, if you are always clamping down, your muscles will have a hard time clinching further in times of need. Another way to imagine this is that if you always keep your hand in a fist, it becomes difficult to grasp onto something when needed.

Additionally, to avoid using the wrong muscles when doing your Kegels, try not to squeeze or tighten any of the adjacent muscles, such as those in your stomach, buttocks, or legs. Doing so can interfere with the action of the pelvic muscles. Also, it can put pressure on your bladder if you're tightening the muscles around the pelvic floor instead of the actual pelvic floor muscles.

Don’t do your Kegels while you urinate. This can lead to not completely emptying your bladder, increasing your risk of urinary tract infections.

Tracking Improvement

Like any workout regimen, it takes some time to see a significant muscle strength improvement from doing Kegels. Many people start to notice a change in their bladder strength within three to six weeks of regularly doing these exercises but this will vary a great deal from person to person.

A Word From Verywell

If you have any specific concerns about your pelvic floor muscle health, during or after pregnancy and childbirth, be sure to consult your doctor. Kegels might be beneficial for you and getting expert help can get you on the right track toward relief and optimal pelvic floor health quickly.

These exercises are commonly recommended as the initial line of treatment but if Kegels alone don't resolve your symptoms, then other treatments, such as physical therapy or surgery, may be suggested. However, this relatively simple exercise will usually make a big difference, and once you get the hang of it, Kegels tend to be easy to fit into your everyday life.

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